Nicotine metabolism and addiction among adolescent smokers
- Author(s): Rubinstein, ML
- Shiffman, S
- Moscicki, AB
- Rait, MA
- Sen, S
- Benowitz, NL
- et al.
Published Web Locationhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3504133/pdf/nihms396006.pdf
Aims: The purpose of this study was to determine the association between the nicotine metabolic rate and smoking behavior, including addiction, in adolescent smokers. Design: Baseline data from a prospective study of adolescent smoking behaviors and nicotine metabolism. Setting: The setting was an out-patient university hospital in San Francisco. Participants: Adolescent smokers (n=164) aged 13-17 years old. Measurements: Participants completed self-report measures of smoking behavior and nicotine dependence (modified Fagerström Tolerance Questionnaire: mFTQ). The nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR), a phenotypic marker of the rate of nicotine metabolism, was calculated using the ratio of concentrations of deuterium-labeled 3′-hydroxycotinine to cotinine-d4. Findings: Participants reported smoking a mean of 2.86 cigarettes per day (CPD) [median=1.78, standard deviation (SD)=3.35] for 1.37 years (median=1.0, SD=1.36). Results from multivariate analyses accounting for age, race/ethnicity, gender and duration of smoking indicated that slower metabolizers smoked more CPD than faster metabolizers (the NMR was inversely related to CPD; P=0.02). Slower metabolizers also showed greater dependence on the mFTQ (NMR was negatively associated with the mFTQ; P=0.02). Conclusions: In adolescence, slower clearance of nicotine may be associated with greater levels of addiction, perhaps mediated by a greater number of cigarettes smoked. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.
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