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Tissue-Resident Innate and Innate-Like Lymphocyte Responses to Viral Infection

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Infection is restrained by the concerted activation of tissue-resident and circulating immune cells. Recent discoveries have demonstrated that tissue-resident lymphocyte subsets, comprised of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) and unconventional T cells, have vital roles in the initiation of primary antiviral responses. Via direct and indirect mechanisms, ILCs and unconventional T cell subsets play a critical role in the ability of the immune system to mount an effective antiviral response through potent early cytokine production. In this review, we will summarize the current knowledge of tissue-resident lymphocytes during initial viral infection and evaluate their redundant or nonredundant contributions to host protection or virus-induced pathology.

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