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Radiation coronary arteritis refractory to surgical and percutaneous revascularization culminating in orthotopic heart transplantation.

  • Author(s): Cheng, Richard K
  • Lee, Michael S
  • Seki, Atsuko
  • Shemin, Richard J
  • Cruz, Daniel
  • Lluri, Gentian
  • Mitchell, George D
  • Yang, Eric H
  • et al.
Abstract

Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) comprises of 4% of malignancies diagnosed in children from birth to 14 years of age. While overall survival rates have increased, HL survivors can be at risk of late cardiovascular complications from radiotherapy. HL survivors with a history of mediastinal RT have been found to have an increased incidence of myocardial infarction, angina, congestive heart failure, and valvular disorders compared to the general population.

A 33 year old female with a history of HL status post chemotherapy and mediastinal radiation 11 years ago became symptomatic with multivessel coronary artery disease with aggressive progression of her disease despite coronary bypass graft surgery, patch angioplasty of the left main coronary artery (LMCA) with an extracellular bioscaffold, and repeated percutaneous coronary intervention of the LMCA. She eventually underwent orthotopic heart transplant and did well postoperatively.

Histopathological analysis of the explanted heart revealed a variety of sequelae of radiation arteritis, including thrombosis of both native vessels and arterial grafts, intimal hyperplasia and involvement of the bioscaffold in the left main coronary vasculature. The bioscaffold did not contribute significantly to the stenosis within the LMCA.

Our case demonstrates an unusual indication for OHT due to severe refractory radiation induced CAD, as well the wide spectrum of the histopathologic manifestations of radiation induced arteritis.

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