X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of negative electrodes from high-power
lithium-ion cells showing various levels of power fade
- Author(s): Herstedt, Marie;
- Abraham, Daniel P.;
- Kerr, John B.
- et al.
High-power lithium-ion cells for transportation applications are being developed and studied at Argonne National Laboratory. The current generation of cells containing LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2-based cathodes, graphite-based anodes, and LiPF6-based electrolytes show loss of capacity and power during accelerated testing at elevated temperatures. Negative electrode samples harvested from some cells that showed varying degrees of power and capacity fade were examined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The samples exhibited a surface film on the graphite, which was thicker on samples from cells that showed higher fade. Furthermore, solvent-based compounds were dominant on samples from low power fade cells, whereas LiPF6-based products were dominant on samples from high power fade cells. The effect of sample rinsing and air exposure is discussed. Mechanisms are proposed to explain the formation of compounds suggested by the XPS data.