Calibration of the Milagro Cosmic Ray Telescope
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Calibration of the Milagro Cosmic Ray Telescope

  • Author(s): Atkins, R
  • Benbow, W
  • Berley, D
  • Chen, M-L
  • Coyne, DG
  • Delay, RS
  • Dingus, BL
  • Dorfan, DE
  • Ellsworth, RW
  • Evans, D
  • Falcone, A
  • Fleysher, L
  • Fleysher, R
  • Gisler, G
  • Goodman, JA
  • Haines, TJ
  • Hoffman, CM
  • Hugenberger, S
  • Kelley, LA
  • Leonor, I
  • Macri, J
  • McConnell, M
  • McCullough, JF
  • McEnery, JE
  • Miller, RS
  • Mincer, AI
  • Morales, MF
  • Nemethy, P
  • Ryan, JM
  • Schneider, M
  • Shen, B
  • Shoup, A
  • Sinnis, G
  • Smith, AJ
  • Sullivan, GW
  • Thompson, TN
  • Tumer, OT
  • Wang, K
  • Wascko, MO
  • Westerhoff, S
  • Williams, DA
  • Yang, T
  • Yodh, GB
  • et al.
Abstract

The Milagro detector is an air shower array which uses the water Cherenkov technique and is capable of continuously monitoring the sky at energies near 1 TeV. The detector consists of 20000 metric tons of pure water instrumented with 723 photo-multiplier tubes (PMTs). The PMTs are arranged in a two-layer structure on a lattice of 3 m spacing covering 5000 $m^2$ area. The direction of the shower is determined from the relative timing of the PMT signals, necessitating a common time reference and amplitude slewing corrections to improve the time resolution. The calibration system to provide these consists of a pulsed laser driving 30 diffusing light sources deployed in the pond to allow cross-calibration of the PMTs. The system is capable of calibrating times and the pulse-heights from the PMTs using the time-over-threshold technique. The absolute energy scale is provided using single muons passing through the detector. The description of the calibration system of the Milagro detector and its prototype Milagrito will be presented.

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