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Open Access Publications from the University of California

Inhaled Loxapine for the Treatment of Psychiatric Agitation in the Prehospital Setting: A Case Series


Rapid and effective control of agitated patients is crucial for ensuring their safety and proper management. We present a case series of 12 agitated psychiatric patients who were suitable for treatment with inhaled loxapine in the prehospital emergency setting. Two refused its administration and two required additional treatment. Loxapine was effective within 2-10 minutes, with no adverse effects or sedation. In our experience the use of inhaled loxapine enabled rapid and non-coercive control of agitation in most psychiatric patients, allowing us to avoid mechanical restraint and injectable drugs, and facilitating the transportation and transfer of the patients.

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