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Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Macular Vascular Density Measurements and the Central 10-2 Visual Field in Glaucoma.

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PURPOSE:To evaluate the association between macula vascular density assessed by optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) and central visual field (VF) threshold sensitivities in healthy, glaucoma suspect, and glaucoma patients. METHODS:A total of 185 eyes from 38 healthy participants, 31 glaucoma suspects, 72 mild glaucoma patients, and 44 moderate/severe glaucoma patients from the Diagnostic Innovations in Glaucoma Study who underwent OCT-A images of the macula and 10-2 VF testing were enrolled in this observational cross-sectional study. The relationship between central VF mean sensitivity (MS) and superficial macula whole-image vessel density (wiVD), and the relationship between the MS of the 4 central points of the 10-2 VF (MS4) and parafoveal vessel density (pfVD), were assessed using linear regression models. RESULTS:Mean wiVD (52.5%, 49.8%, 49.4% and 45.2%, respectively) and mean pfVD (54.9%, 52.1%, 51.8% and 47.7%, respectively) were found to be significantly higher in healthy eyes and glaucoma suspect eyes compared with glaucoma eyes with mild and moderate/severe disease [analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) P<0.001]. The univariate associations between 10-2 MS and wiVD (R=26.9%) and between 10-2 MS4 and pfVD (R=16.8%) were statistically significant (P<0.001 for both). After adjusting for scan quality, age, sex and intraocular pressure, superficial macula wiVD and pfVD were still independently associated with central VF loss. Macula wiVD performed better [area under the receiver operator characteristic (AUROC)=0.70] than ganglion cell complex thickness (AUROC=0.50) for differentiating between glaucoma suspect and healthy eyes (P=0.010). CONCLUSIONS:Loss of OCT-A macula vessel density is associated with central 10-2 VF defects. Macula vessel density is a clinically relevant parameter that may enhance monitoring of glaucoma suspects and patients.

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