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Immune Checkpoint Therapies and Atherosclerosis: Mechanisms and Clinical Implications: JACC State-of-the-Art Review.

The data associated with this publication are within the manuscript.

Immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy has revolutionized the treatment of advanced malignancies in recent years. Numerous reports have detailed the myriad of possible adverse inflammatory effects of immune checkpoint therapies, including within the cardiovascular system. However, these reports have been largely limited to myocarditis. The critical role of inflammation and adaptive immunity in atherosclerosis has been well characterized in preclinical studies, and several emerging clinical studies indicate a potential role of immune checkpoint targeting therapies in the development and exacerbation of atherosclerosis. In this review, we provide an overview of the role of T-cell immunity in atherogenesis and describe the molecular effects and clinical associations of both approved and investigational immune checkpoint therapy on atherosclerosis. We also highlight the role of cholesterol metabolism in oncogenesis and discuss the implications of these associations on future treatment and monitoring of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in the oncologic population receiving immune checkpoint therapy.

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