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Anisotropic growth is achieved through the additive mechanical effect of material anisotropy and elastic asymmetry

  • Author(s): Daher, FB
  • Chen, Y
  • Bozorg, B
  • Clough, J
  • Jonsson, H
  • Braybrook, SA
  • et al.

Published Web Location

https://elifesciences.org/articles/38161
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Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International Public License
Abstract

Fast directional growth is a necessity for the young seedling; after germination, it needs to quickly penetrate the soil to begin its autotrophic life. In most dicot plants, this rapid escape is due to the anisotropic elongation of the hypocotyl, the columnar organ between the root and the shoot meristems. Anisotropic growth is common in plant organs and is canonically attributed to cell wall anisotropy produced by oriented cellulose fibers. Recently, a mechanism based on asymmetric pectin-based cell wall elasticity has been proposed. Here we present a harmonizing model for anisotropic growth control in the dark-grown Arabidopsis thaliana hypocotyl: basic anisotropic information is provided by cellulose orientation) and additive anisotropic information is provided by pectin-based elastic asymmetry in the epidermis. We quantitatively show that hypocotyl elongation is anisotropic starting at germination. We present experimental evidence for pectin biochemical differences and wall mechanics providing important growth regulation in the hypocotyl. Lastly, our in silico modelling experiments indicate an additive collaboration between pectin biochemistry and cellulose orientation in promoting anisotropic growth.

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