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Associations Between Cigarette Print Advertising and Smoking Initiation Among African Americans.
Published Web Locationhttps://doi.org/10.1007/s40615-016-0253-9
ObjectivesThe objective of this study was to examine changes in the annual number of cigarette advertisements in magazines with a predominantly African-American audience following the broadcast ban on tobacco, and whether fluctuations in cigarette print advertising targeting African Americans during the late-1970s until the mid-1980s were associated with declines in smoking initiation.
DesignWe tabulated the annual number of cigarette advertisements from magazines with large African-American readerships (Ebony, Essence, and Jet) from 1960 to 1990. Advertisements were coded depending on whether they featured African-American models. We calculated the incidence rate of regular smoking initiation from 1975 to 1990 for African-American 14-25 years old using data from the 1992-1993, 1995-1996, 1998-1999, and 2001-2002 Tobacco Use Supplements of the Current Population Survey. We examined whether trends in smoking initiation coincided with trends in cigarette advertising practices among African Americans.
ResultsThe annual aggregated number of printed cigarette advertisements in Ebony, Essence, and Jet magazines increased at least five-fold starting in 1971, following the broadcast ban on cigarette advertising. A decrease in the percentage of ads by Brown & Williamson that showed African-American models was positively correlated (r = 0.30) with declines in the incidence rate of smoking initiation among African Americans from the late-1970s to the mid-1980s.
ConclusionThe tobacco industry adapted quickly following the broadcast ban on cigarettes by increasing print advertising in African-American magazines. However, changes in print advertising practices by were associated with declines in smoking initiation among African Americans from the late-1970s to mid-1980s.
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