Catching Element Formation In The Act
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Catching Element Formation In The Act

  • Author(s): Fryer, Chris L;
  • Timmes, Frank;
  • Hungerford, Aimee L;
  • Couture, Aaron;
  • Adams, Fred;
  • Aoki, Wako;
  • Arcones, Almudena;
  • Arnett, David;
  • Auchettl, Katie;
  • Avila, Melina;
  • Badenes, Carles;
  • Baron, Eddie;
  • Bauswein, Andreas;
  • Beacom, John;
  • Blackmon, Jeff;
  • Blondin, Stephane;
  • Bloser, Peter;
  • Boggs, Steve;
  • Boss, Alan;
  • Brandt, Terri;
  • Bravo, Eduardo;
  • Brown, Ed;
  • Brown, Peter;
  • Budtz-Jorgensen, Steve Bruenn Carl;
  • Burns, Eric;
  • Calder, Alan;
  • Caputo, Regina;
  • Champagne, Art;
  • Chevalier, Roger;
  • Chieffi, Alessandro;
  • Chipps, Kelly;
  • Cinabro, David;
  • Clarkson, Ondrea;
  • Clayton, Don;
  • Coc, Alain;
  • Connolly, Devin;
  • Conroy, Charlie;
  • Cote, Benoit;
  • Couch, Sean;
  • Dauphas, Nicolas;
  • deBoer, Richard James;
  • Deibel, Catherine;
  • Denisenkov, Pavel;
  • Desch, Steve;
  • Dessart, Luc;
  • Diehl, Roland;
  • Doherty, Carolyn;
  • Dominguez, Inma;
  • Dong, Subo;
  • Dwarkadas, Vikram;
  • Fan, Doreen;
  • Fields, Brian;
  • Fields, Carl;
  • Filippenko, Alex;
  • Fisher, Robert;
  • Foucart, Francois;
  • Fransson, Claes;
  • Frohlich, Carla;
  • Fuller, George;
  • Gibson, Brad;
  • Giryanskaya, Viktoriya;
  • Gorres, Joachim;
  • Goriely, Stephane;
  • Grebenev, Sergei;
  • Grefenstette, Brian;
  • Grohs, Evan;
  • Guillochon, James;
  • Harpole, Alice;
  • Harris, Chelsea;
  • Harris, J Austin;
  • Harrison, Fiona;
  • Hartmann, Dieter;
  • Hashimoto, Masa-aki;
  • Heger, Alexander;
  • Hernanz, Margarita;
  • Herwig, Falk;
  • Hirschi, Raphael;
  • Hix, Raphael William;
  • Hoflich, Peter;
  • Hoffman, Robert;
  • Holcomb, Cole;
  • Hsiao, Eric;
  • Iliadis, Christian;
  • Janiuk, Agnieszka;
  • Janka, Thomas;
  • Jerkstrand, Anders;
  • Johns, Lucas;
  • Jones, Samuel;
  • Jose, Jordi;
  • Kajino, Toshitaka;
  • Karakas, Amanda;
  • Karpov, Platon;
  • Kasen, Dan;
  • Kierans, Carolyn;
  • Kippen, Marc;
  • Korobkin, Oleg;
  • Kobayashi, Chiaki;
  • Kozma, Cecilia;
  • Krot, Saha;
  • Kumar, Pawan;
  • Kuvvetli, Irfan;
  • Laird, Alison;
  • Laming, Martin;
  • Larsson, Josefin;
  • Lattanzio, John;
  • Lattimer, James;
  • Leising, Mark;
  • Lennarz, Annika;
  • Lentz, Eric;
  • Limongi, Marco;
  • Lippuner, Jonas;
  • Livne, Eli;
  • Lloyd-Ronning, Nicole;
  • Longland, Richard;
  • Lopez, Laura A;
  • Lugaro, Maria;
  • Lutovinov, Alexander;
  • Madsen, Kristin;
  • Malone, Chris;
  • Matteucci, Francesca;
  • McEnery, Julie;
  • Meisel, Zach;
  • Messer, Bronson;
  • Metzger, Brian;
  • Meyer, Bradley;
  • Meynet, Georges;
  • Mezzacappa, Anthony;
  • Miller, Jonah;
  • Miller, Richard;
  • Milne, Peter;
  • Misch, Wendell;
  • Mitchell, Lee;
  • Mosta, Philipp;
  • Motizuki, Yuko;
  • Muller, Bernhard;
  • Mumpower, Matthew;
  • Murphy, Jeremiah;
  • Nagataki, Shigehiro;
  • Nakar, Ehud;
  • Nomoto, Ken'ichi;
  • Nugent, Peter;
  • Nunes, Filomena;
  • O'Shea, Brian;
  • Oberlack, Uwe;
  • Pain, Steven;
  • Parker, Lucas;
  • Perego, Albino;
  • Pignatari, Marco;
  • Pinedo, Gabriel Martinez;
  • Plewa, Tomasz;
  • Poznanski, Dovi;
  • Priedhorsky, William;
  • Pritychenko, Boris;
  • Radice, David;
  • Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico;
  • Rauscher, Thomas;
  • Reddy, Sanjay;
  • Rehm, Ernst;
  • Reifarth, Rene;
  • Richman, Debra;
  • Ricker, Paul;
  • Rijal, Nabin;
  • Roberts, Luke;
  • Ropke, Friedrich;
  • Rosswog, Stephan;
  • Ruiter, Ashley J;
  • Ruiz, Chris;
  • Savin, Daniel Wolf;
  • Schatz, Hendrik;
  • Schneider, Dieter;
  • Schwab, Josiah;
  • Seitenzahl, Ivo;
  • Shen, Ken;
  • Siegert, Thomas;
  • Sim, Stuart;
  • Smith, David;
  • Smith, Karl;
  • Smith, Michael;
  • Sollerman, Jesper;
  • Sprouse, Trevor;
  • Spyrou, Artemis;
  • Starrfield, Sumner;
  • Steiner, Andrew;
  • Strong, Andrew W;
  • Sukhbold, Tuguldur;
  • Suntzeff, Nick;
  • Surman, Rebecca;
  • Tanimori, Toru;
  • The, Lih-Sin;
  • Thielemann, Friedrich-Karl;
  • Tolstov, Alexey;
  • Tominaga, Nozomu;
  • Tomsick, John;
  • Townsley, Dean;
  • Tsintari, Pelagia;
  • Tsygankov, Sergey;
  • Vartanyan, David;
  • Venters, Tonia;
  • Vestrand, Tom;
  • Vink, Jacco;
  • Waldman, Roni;
  • Wang, Lifang;
  • Wang, Xilu;
  • Warren, MacKenzie;
  • West, Christopher;
  • Wheeler, J Craig;
  • Wiescher, Michael;
  • Winkler, Christoph;
  • Winter, Lisa;
  • Wolf, Bill;
  • Woolf, Richard;
  • Woosley, Stan;
  • Wu, Jin;
  • Wrede, Chris;
  • Yamada, Shoichi;
  • Young, Patrick;
  • Zegers, Remco;
  • Zingale, Michael;
  • Zwart, Simon Portegies
  • et al.
Abstract

Gamma-ray astronomy explores the most energetic photons in nature to address some of the most pressing puzzles in contemporary astrophysics. It encompasses a wide range of objects and phenomena: stars, supernovae, novae, neutron stars, stellar-mass black holes, nucleosynthesis, the interstellar medium, cosmic rays and relativistic-particle acceleration, and the evolution of galaxies. MeV gamma-rays provide a unique probe of nuclear processes in astronomy, directly measuring radioactive decay, nuclear de-excitation, and positron annihilation. The substantial information carried by gamma-ray photons allows us to see deeper into these objects, the bulk of the power is often emitted at gamma-ray energies, and radioactivity provides a natural physical clock that adds unique information. New science will be driven by time-domain population studies at gamma-ray energies. This science is enabled by next-generation gamma-ray instruments with one to two orders of magnitude better sensitivity, larger sky coverage, and faster cadence than all previous gamma-ray instruments. This transformative capability permits: (a) the accurate identification of the gamma-ray emitting objects and correlations with observations taken at other wavelengths and with other messengers; (b) construction of new gamma-ray maps of the Milky Way and other nearby galaxies where extended regions are distinguished from point sources; and (c) considerable serendipitous science of scarce events -- nearby neutron star mergers, for example. Advances in technology push the performance of new gamma-ray instruments to address a wide set of astrophysical questions.

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