Two Crinivirus-Conserved Small Proteins, P5 and P9, Are Indispensable for Efficient Lettuce infectious yellows virus Infectivity in Plants.
- Author(s): Qiao, Wenjie
- Helpio, Erin L
- Falk, Bryce W
- et al.
Published Web Locationhttps://doi.org/10.3390/v10090459
Genomic analysis of Lettuce infectious yellows virus (LIYV) has revealed two short open reading frames (ORFs) on LIYV RNA2, that are predicted to encode a 5-kDa (P5) and a 9-kDa (P9) protein. The P5 ORF is part of the conserved quintuple gene block in the family Closteroviridae, while P9 orthologs are found in all Criniviruses. In this study, the expression of LIYV P5 and P9 proteins was confirmed; P5 is further characterized as an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized integral transmembrane protein and P9 is a soluble protein. The knockout LIYV mutants presented reduced symptom severity and virus accumulation in Nicotiana benthamiana or lettuce plants, indicating their importance in efficient virus infection. The P5 mutant was successfully complemented by a dislocated P5 in the LIYV genome. The structural regions of P5 were tested and all were found to be required for the appropriate functions of P5. In addition, P5, as well as its ortholog P6, encoded by Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) and another ER-localized protein encoded by LIYV RNA1, were found to cause cell death when expressed in N. benthamiana plants from a TMV vector, and induce ER stress and the unfolded protein response (UPR).