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PTH hypersecretion triggered by a GABAB1 and Ca2+-sensing receptor heterocomplex in hyperparathyroidism.

Abstract

Molecular mechanisms mediating tonic secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH) in response to hypocalcaemia and hyperparathyroidism (HPT) are unclear. Here we demonstrate increased heterocomplex formation between the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) and metabotropic γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) B1 receptor (GABAB1R) in hyperplastic parathyroid glands (PTGs) of patients with primary and secondary HPT. Targeted ablation of GABAB1R or glutamic acid decarboxylase 1 and 2 in PTGs produces hypocalcaemia and hypoparathyroidism, and prevents PTH hypersecretion in PTGs cultured from mouse models of hereditary HPT and dietary calcium-deficiency. Cobinding of the CaSR/GABAB1R complex by baclofen and high extracellular calcium blocks the coupling of heterotrimeric G-proteins to homomeric CaSRs in cultured cells and promotes PTH secretion in cultured mouse PTGs. These results combined with the ability of PTG to synthesize GABA support a critical autocrine action of GABA/GABAB1R in mediating tonic PTH secretion of PTGs and ascribe aberrant activities of CaSR/GABAB1R heteromer to HPT.

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