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Use of Nonhuman Primate Models to Develop Mucosal AIDS Vaccines

  • Author(s): Genescà, Meritxell
  • Miller, Christopher J.
  • et al.
Abstract

The HIV vaccines tested in the halted Step efficacy trial and the modestly successful phase 3 RV144 trial were designed to elicit strong systemic immune responses; therefore, strategies to direct immune responses into mucosal sites should be tested in an effort to improve AIDS vaccine efficacy. However, as increased CD4+ T-cell activation and recruitment to mucosal sites have the potential to enhance HIV transmission, mucosal immune responses to HIV vaccines should primarily consist of effector CD8+ T cells and plasma cells. Controlling the level of mucosal T-cell activation may be a critical factor in developing an effective mucosal AIDS vaccine. Immunization routes and adjuvants that can boost antiviral immunity in mucosal surfaces offer a reasonable opportunity to improve AIDS vaccine efficacy. Nonhuman primate models offer the best system for preclinical evaluation of these approaches.

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