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Ectopic biomineralization in kidney stone formers compared to non-stone formers.



Kidney stone formers (SFs) are at increased risk of stroke, myocardial infarction, and atherosclerosis of the carotid and coronary arteries. These cardiovascular and urologic pathologies can result from ectopic biomineral deposition. The objectives of this study are: (I) to evaluate risk factors for ectopic biomineralization, and (II) to characterize the overall burden of ectopic minerals in known SFs compared to non-stone formers (NSFs) matched for these risk factors.


Presence and quantity of biominerals at eight anatomic locations (abdominal aorta, common iliac arteries, pelvic veins, prostate or uterus, mesentery, pancreas, and spleen) were determined in a case control study by retrospective analysis of clinical non-contrast computed tomography scans obtained from 190 SFs and 190 gender- and age-matched NSFs (renal transplant donors). Predictors of biomineralization were determined using negative binomial regression. A subgroup of 140 SFs and 140 NSFs were matched for risk factors for systemic biomineralization, and mineralization was compared between these matched SFs and NSFs using ordinal logistic regression.


Hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus, and smoking were more common amongst SFs. Risk factors for increased systemic biomineralization included history of nephrolithiasis, male gender, older age, and history of hyperlipidemia. When controlling for these comorbidities, SFs had significantly increased biomineralization systemically and at the abdominal aorta, iliac arteries, prostate, mesentery, pancreas, and spleen compared to NSFs.


The current study provides evidence that SFs are at increased risk of biomineralization systemically, independent of common risk factors of atherosclerosis.

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