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Pulmonary Complications in Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Recipients—A Clinician Primer


Hematopoietic stem cell transplants (HSCT) are becoming more widespread as a result of optimization of conditioning regimens and prevention of short-term complications with prophylactic antibiotics and antifungals. However, pulmonary complications post-HSCT remain a leading cause of morbidity and mortality and are a challenge to clinicians in both diagnosis and treatment. This comprehensive review provides a primer for non-pulmonary healthcare providers, synthesizing the current evidence behind common infectious and non-infectious post-transplant pulmonary complications based on time (peri-engraftment, early post-transplantation, and late post-transplantation). Utilizing the combination of timing of presentation, clinical symptoms, histopathology, and radiographic findings should increase rates of early diagnosis, treatment, and prognostication of these severe illness states.

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