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Advances in immune checkpoint inhibitors for bone sarcoma therapy.


Bone sarcomas are a collection of sporadic malignancies of mesenchymal origin. The most common subtypes include osteosarcoma, Ewing sarcoma, chondrosarcoma, and chordoma. Despite the use of aggressive treatment protocols consisting of extensive surgical resection, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy, outcomes have not significantly improved over the past few decades for osteosarcoma or Ewing sarcoma patients. In addition, chondrosarcoma and chordoma are resistant to both chemotherapy and radiation therapy. There is, therefore, an urgent need to elucidate which novel new therapies may affect bone sarcomas. Emerging checkpoint inhibitors have generated considerable attention for their clinical success in a variety of human cancers, which has led to works assessing their potential in bone sarcoma management. Here, we review the recent advances of anti-PD-1/PD-L1 and anti-CTLA-4 blockade as well as other promising new immune checkpoint targets for their use in bone sarcoma therapy.

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