Dirac Equation with External Potential and Initial Data on Cauchy Surfaces
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Dirac Equation with External Potential and Initial Data on Cauchy Surfaces

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With this paper we provide a mathematical review on the initial-value problem of the one-particle Dirac equation on space-like Cauchy hypersurfaces for compactly supported external potentials. We, first, discuss the physically relevant spaces of solutions and initial values in position and mass shell representation; second, review the action of the Poincar e group as well as gauge transformations on those spaces; third, introduce generalized Fourier transforms between those spaces and prove convenient Paley-Wiener- and Sobolev-type estimates. These generalized Fourier transforms immediately allow the construction of a unitary evolution operator for the free Dirac equation between the Hilbert spaces of square-integrable wave functions of two respective Cauchy surfaces. With a Picard-Lindel\"of argument this evolution map is generalized to the Dirac evolution including the external potential. For the latter we introduce a convenient interaction picture on Cauchy surfaces. These tools immediately provide another proof of the well-known existence and uniqueness of classical solutions and their causal structure.

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