Review of cultural and other control methods for reducing pine vole populations in apple orchards
The use of cultivation three times a year (May, July, and November) or cultivation plus a residual herbicide twice a year (July and November) greatly aided in the control of pine voles Microtus pinetorum (LeConte) in apple orchards. The use of Chlorophacinone (CPN) or Diphacinone (DPN) baits placed by hand in holes and runs 2-3 weeks after the November cultivation resulted in a very effective control procedure. Without cultivation at least two applications of anticoagulant baits at the rate of 10 lbs/acre each were required to insure adequate control. Due to low apple prices in 1975, large numbers of dropped apples existed under trees when apple and prepared hand baits were applied. We believe dropped apples interfered with control achieved with toxic baits.