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Neural substrates of cue reactivity: association with treatment outcomes and relapse.

  • Author(s): Courtney, Kelly E
  • Schacht, Joseph P
  • Hutchison, Kent
  • Roche, Daniel J O
  • Ray, Lara A
  • et al.
Abstract

Given the strong evidence for neurological alterations at the basis of drug dependence, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) represents an important tool in the clinical neuroscience of addiction. fMRI cue-reactivity paradigms represent an ideal platform to probe the involvement of neurobiological pathways subserving the reward/motivation system in addiction and potentially offer a translational mechanism by which interventions and behavioral predictions can be tested. Thus, this review summarizes the research that has applied fMRI cue-reactivity paradigms to the study of adult substance use disorder treatment responses. Studies utilizing fMRI cue-reactivity paradigms for the prediction of relapse and as a means to investigate psychosocial and pharmacological treatment effects on cue-elicited brain activation are presented within four primary categories of substances: alcohol, nicotine, cocaine and opioids. Lastly, suggestions for how to leverage fMRI technology to advance addiction science and treatment development are provided.

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