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Open Access Publications from the University of California

Use of the GALAD score for serological prediction of hepatocellular carcinoma

  • Author(s): Nomura, Scott
  • et al.

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) continues to be one of the leading causes of death among cancer patients worldwide. HCC occurs in well-defined at-risk populations, with curative therapy possible only for small tumors, making it a potential target for creating new screening techniques. Imaging in conjunction with serum biomarker measurements have been the hallmark of HCC diagnosis, but have shown limited use as a surveillance tool. An objective, GALAD score is a serum biomarker-based statistical model that predicts the probability of having HCC in patients with chronic liver disease. Consisting of gender, age, AFP, AFP-L3, and des-[gamma]-carboxyprothrombin (DCP), the GALAD model improves upon prior biomarker measurements by analyzing an AFP glycoform more specific to malignant tumors and HCC inflammation, and a prothrombin precursor able to differentiate HCC from non-malignant liver disease. This retrospective study is focused on validating the use of the GALAD model as a potential HCC screening tool. Patients at risk for HCC who had AFP total & L3% and DCP measurements will be included in the study. HCC diagnosis will be made by imaging criteria and/or pathology when available. Etiologies of liver disease including hepatitis B, hepatitis C, alcohol, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease will also be recorded. Comparison with existing GALAD model results will help demonstrate GALAD's utility as an HCC screening tool in the San Dieog and international populations.

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