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Temperature-dependent growth of hexagonal and monoclinic gallium sulfide films by pulsed-laser deposition

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We demonstrate the selective, pulsed-laser deposition of hexagonal GaS and monoclinic Ga2S3 films on sapphire substrates from a single Ga2S3 target in high-vacuum conditions. Growth at substrate temperatures below 550 °C causes GaS film formation, which indicates non-stoichiometric transfer from the target to the film. Surprisingly, stoichiometric transfer occurs at substrate temperatures above 650 °C with monoclinic Ga2S3 as the preferred, higher S-content phase. Through a series of growth and annealing experiments, we show that GaS nucleation under S-deficient conditions leads to the preferred growth of this layered, hexagonal phase below 550 °C. Furthermore, GaS films annealed above 650 °C under high vacuum are transformed to Ga2S3, reflecting the greater stability of the monoclinic phase. By first growing Ga2S3 at a higher temperature and subsequently growing GaS at a lower temperature, we can fabricate GaS/Ga2S3 heterostructures in a single growth process.

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