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Cellular Regulation of Cytosolic Group IV Phospholipase A2 by Phosphatidylinositol Bisphosphate Levels


Cytosolic group IV phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) is a ubiquitously expressed enzyme with key roles in intracellular signaling. The current paradigm for activation of cPLA2 by stimuli proposes that both an increase in intracellular calcium and mitogen-activated protein kinase-mediated phosphorylation occur together to fully activate the enzyme. Calcium is currently thought to be needed for translocation of the cPLA2 to the membrane via a C2 domain, whereas the role of cPLA2 phosphorylation is less clearly defined. Herein, we report that brief exposure of P388D1 macrophages to UV radiation results in a rapid, cPLA2-mediated arachidonic acid mobilization, without increases in intracellular calcium. Thus, increased Ca2+ availability is a dispensable signal for cPLA2 activation, which suggests the existence of alternative mechanisms for the enzyme to efficiently interact with membranes. Our previous in vitro data suggested the importance of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PtdInsP2) in the association of cPLA2 to model membranes and hence in the regulation of cPLA2 activity. Experiments described herein show that PtdInsP2 also serves a similar role in vivo. Moreover, inhibition of PtdInsP2 formation during activation conditions leads to inhibition of the cPLA2-mediated arachidonic acid mobilization. These results suggest that cellular PtdInsP2 levels are involved in the regulation of group IV cPLA2 activation.

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