Static and Microwave Transport Properties of Aluminum Nanobridge Josephson Junctions
Josephson junctions are the basis of superconducting qubits, amplifiers, and magnetometers. Historically, tunnel-style junctions have been most common. However, for some applications--those requiring a small, highly transparent, all-superconducting junction--nanobridge weak link junctions may be preferable. This thesis presents extensive characterization of aluminum nanobridge Josephson junctions. The junction behavior is simulated by numerically solving the Usadel equations. These simulations are then tested and confirmed via low- and microwave-frequency transport measurements. The data confirm that nanobridge junctions approach the ideal weak-link Josephson limit.
Such a near-ideal junction can be used in a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) to form an ultra sensitive magnetometer. This thesis presents the first nanobridge-based dispersive SQUID magnetometer. The devices show near-zero dissipation, with bandwidth and sensitivity on par with the best reported results for any SQUID-based magnetometer. These magnetometers have several flexible modes of operation, allowing for optimization of sensitivity, bandwidth, or backaction. They also provide insight into the internal dynamics of dispersive measurement with nonlinear cavities, as the magnetometer backaction depends on the bias point and can readily be measured.
Nanobridge junctions also provide a useful tool for diagnosing sources of decoherence in superconducting qubits. By replacing the usual tunnel junction with a nanobridge, the contribution of the junction to decoherence processes may be probed. In particular, the interaction of nanobridge junctions with quasiparticles provides information both about the junctions themselves and about quasiparticle generation and relaxation mechanisms. This thesis reports measurements of nonequilibrium quasiparticles trapping in phase-biased nanobridge junctions. By probing the quasiparticle-induced changes in resonant frequency of a high-Q nanoSQUID oscillator, one may measure the mean distribution of trapped quasiparticles and study its temperature dependence. These measurements also provide spectroscopy of the junctions' internal Andreev states and the dynamics of quasiparticle excitation and retrapping. The work presented here demonstrates the utility of nanobridge junctions as a tool for quantifying the population and distribution of quasiparticles in a superconducting circuit.