Skip to main content
Open Access Publications from the University of California


UCLA Previously Published Works bannerUCLA

Intraaortic Balloon Pump vs Peripheral Ventricular Assist Device Use in the United States.



The objective of this study was to characterize practical use trends and outcomes for intraaortic balloon pump (IABP) and percutaneous left ventricular assist device (pVAD) use in cardiogenic shock at a national level.


An analysis of all adult patients admitted nonelectively for cardiogenic shock from January 2008 through December 2017 was performed using the National Inpatient Sample. Trends of inpatient IABP and pVAD use were analyzed using survey-weighted estimates and the modified Cochran-Armitage test for significance. Multivariable regression models and inverse probability of treatment weights were used to perform risk-adjusted analyses of pVAD mortality, a composite of adverse events (AE), and resource use, with IABP as reference.


Of an estimated 774,310 patients admitted with cardiogenic shock, 143,051 received a device: IABP, 127,792 (16.5%); or pVAD, 15,259 (2.0%). IABP use decreased (23.8% to 12.7%; P for trend <.001), whereas pVAD implantation increased significantly during the study period (0.2% to 4.5%; P for trend <.001). Inverse probability of treatment weights demonstrated significantly higher odds of mortality with pVAD (odds ratio, 1.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.7 to 2.2), but not AE (odds ratio, 1.1; 95% confidence interval, 0.96 to 1.27), compared with IABP. After risk adjustment, pVAD use was associated with an additional $15,202 (P < .001) in cost for survivors and $29,643 for nonsurvivors (P < .001).


Over the study period, the rate of pVAD use for cardiogenic shock significantly increased. Compared with IABP, pVAD use was associated with increased mortality, higher costs, and several AEs. Multi-institutional clinical trials with rigorous inclusion criteria are warranted to evaluate the clinical utility of pVADs in the modern era.

Many UC-authored scholarly publications are freely available on this site because of the UC's open access policies. Let us know how this access is important for you.

Main Content
For improved accessibility of PDF content, download the file to your device.
Current View