Skip to main content
Open Access Publications from the University of California

UC Davis

UC Davis Previously Published Works bannerUC Davis

Analysis of a Repetitive Language Coding System: Comparisons between Fragile X Syndrome, Autism, and Down Syndrome.


Expressive language sampling (ELS) is a frequently used tool for language analysis, as it can be used across widely ranging cognitive and language abilities. ELS can also evaluate pragmatic language, including excessive self-repetition, which is challenging to assess with traditional standardized assessments. This study explored how a well-established ELS protocol can assess three types of linguistic self-repetition in three neurodevelopmental disabilities: fragile X syndrome (FXS), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and Down syndrome (DS). We examined its ability to differentiate between these disorders, the relationships between repetitive language and other participant characteristics, and initial construct validity. We found that the groups with FXS and ASD differed significantly on each of the three repetitive language measure, and that the group with DS differed from either ASD or FXS on two. Cognitive ability was significantly related to phrase repetition in the group with ASD. When the groups were combined, there was evidence of convergent and divergent validity. This study extends previous research on ELS and supports its use as a means to characterize pragmatic language. It also provides information about the relationships between repetitive language and other phenotypic characteristics.

Many UC-authored scholarly publications are freely available on this site because of the UC's open access policies. Let us know how this access is important for you.

Main Content
For improved accessibility of PDF content, download the file to your device.
Current View