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Measuring risk-adjusted value using Medicare and ACS-NSQIP: is high-quality, low-cost surgical care achievable everywhere?

  • Author(s): Lawson, Elise H
  • Zingmond, David S
  • Stey, Anne M
  • Hall, Bruce L
  • Ko, Clifford Y
  • et al.
Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relationship between risk-adjusted cost and quality for colectomy procedures and to identify characteristics of "high value" hospitals (high quality, low cost). BACKGROUND: Policymakers are currently focused on rewarding high-value health care. Hospitals will increasingly be held accountable for both quality and cost. METHODS: Records (2005-2008) for all patients undergoing colectomy procedures in the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP) were linked to Medicare inpatient claims. Cost was derived from hospital payments by Medicare. Quality was derived from the occurrence of 30-day postoperative major complications and/or death as recorded in ACS-NSQIP. Risk-adjusted cost and quality metrics were developed using hierarchical multivariable modeling, consistent with a National Quality Forum-endorsed colectomy measure. RESULTS: The study population included 14,745 colectomy patients in 169 hospitals. Average hospitalization cost was $21,350 (SD $20,773, median $16,092, interquartile range $14,341-$24,598). Thirty-four percent of patients had a postoperative complication and/or death. Higher hospital quality was significantly correlated with lower cost (correlation coefficient 0.38, P < 0.001). Among hospitals classified as high quality, 52% were found to be low cost (representing highest value hospitals) whereas 14% were high cost (P = 0.001). Forty-one percent of low-quality hospitals were high cost. Highest "value" hospitals represented a mix of teaching/nonteaching affiliation, small/large bed sizes, and regional locations. CONCLUSIONS: Using national ACS-NSQIP and Medicare data, this study reports an association between higher quality and lower cost surgical care. These results suggest that high-value surgical care is being delivered in a wide spectrum of hospitals and hospital types.

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