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Comprehensive subtyping of Parkinson’s disease patients with similarity fusion: a case study with BioFIND data


Parkinson's disease (PD) is a complex neurodegenerative disorder with diverse clinical manifestations. To better understand this disease, research has been done to categorize, or subtype, patients, using an array of criteria derived from clinical assessments and biospecimen analyses. In this study, using data from the BioFIND cohort, we aimed at identifying subtypes of moderate-to-advanced PD via comprehensively considering motor and non-motor manifestations. A total of 103 patients were included for analysis. Through the use of a patient-wise similarity matrix fusion technique and hierarchical agglomerative clustering analysis, three unique subtypes emerged from the clustering results. Subtype I, comprised of 60 patients (~58.3%), was characterized by mild symptoms, both motor and non-motor. Subtype II, comprised of 20 (~19.4%) patients, was characterized by an intermediate severity, with a high tremor score and mild non-motor symptoms. Subtype III, comprised of 23 (~22.3%) patients, was characterized by more severe motor and non-motor symptoms. These subtypes show statistically significant differences when looking at motor (on and off medication) clinical features and non-motor clinical features, while there was no clear difference in demographics, biomarker levels, and genetic risk scores.

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