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Birth of a wild black howler monkey (Alouatta pigra) at an anthropogenic site


We present the first description of a diurnal live birth of a wild black howler monkey (Alouatta pigra). The mother formed part of a group of five individuals inhabiting an anthropogenic setting in the tropical lowlands of southeast Mexico. A total of 7 h and 50 min passed from the rupture of the amniotic sac early in the day to the crowning of the infant from the birth canal. The delivery of the infant lasted ~ 3 min. We describe the event while referencing images and time points in a supplementary video recording. We place our findings in the context of the available reports of live births in the Alouatta genus, time of day, birth duration, and group activity budget on the day of the birth. While primates tend to give birth at night to reduce complications from group interactions, the observed birth took place during the day, which may have been possible due to an alteration in group time allocation. Our report provides in-depth details of the events of a birth and important information regarding the natural history of the black howler monkey.

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