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Quantitative Real-Time Imaging of Glutathione with Subcellular Resolution.



Quantitative imaging of glutathione (GSH) with high spatial and temporal resolution is essential for studying the roles of GSH in redox biology. To study the long-standing question of compartmentalization of GSH, especially its distribution between the nucleus and cytosol, an organelle-targeted quantitative probe is needed.


We developed a reversible reaction-based ratiometric fluorescent probe-HaloRT-that can quantitatively measure GSH dynamics with subcellular resolution in real time. Using HaloRT, we quantitatively measured the GSH concentrations in the nucleus and cytosol of HeLa cells and primary hepatocytes under different treatment conditions and found no appreciable concentration gradients between these two organelles. Innovation and Conclusion: We developed the first reversible ratiometric GSH probe that can be universally targeted to any organelle of interest. Taking advantage of this new tool, we provided definitive evidence showing that GSH concentrations are not significantly different between the nucleus and cytosol, challenging the view of nuclear compartmentalization of GSH.

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