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Planck 2013 results. XVII. Gravitational lensing by large-scale structure

  • Author(s): Ade, PAR
  • Aghanim, N
  • Armitage-Caplan, C
  • Arnaud, M
  • Ashdown, M
  • Atrio-Barandela, F
  • Aumont, J
  • Baccigalupi, C
  • Banday, AJ
  • Barreiro, RB
  • Bartlett, JG
  • Basak, S
  • Battaner, E
  • Benabed, K
  • Benoît, A
  • Benoit-Lévy, A
  • Bernard, JP
  • Bersanelli, M
  • Bielewicz, P
  • Bobin, J
  • Bock, JJ
  • Bonaldi, A
  • Bonavera, L
  • Bond, JR
  • Borrill, J
  • Bouchet, FR
  • Bridges, M
  • Bucher, M
  • Burigana, C
  • Butler, RC
  • Cardoso, JF
  • Catalano, A
  • Challinor, A
  • Chamballu, A
  • Chiang, HC
  • Chiang, LY
  • Christensen, PR
  • Church, S
  • Clements, DL
  • Colombi, S
  • Colombo, LPL
  • Couchot, F
  • Coulais, A
  • Crill, BP
  • Curto, A
  • Cuttaia, F
  • Danese, L
  • Davies, RD
  • Davis, RJ
  • De Bernardis, P
  • De Rosa, A
  • De Zotti, G
  • Déchelette, T
  • Delabrouille, J
  • Delouis, JM
  • Désert, FX
  • Dickinson, C
  • Diego, JM
  • Dole, H
  • Donzelli, S
  • Doré, O
  • Douspis, M
  • Dunkley, J
  • Dupac, X
  • Efstathiou, G
  • Enßlin, TA
  • Eriksen, HK
  • Finelli, F
  • Forni, O
  • Frailis, M
  • Franceschi, E
  • Galeotta, S
  • Ganga, K
  • Giard, M
  • Giardino, G
  • Giraud-Héraud, Y
  • González-Nuevo, J
  • Górski, KM
  • Gratton, S
  • Gregorio, A
  • Gruppuso, A
  • Gudmundsson, JE
  • Hansen, FK
  • Hanson, D
  • Harrison, D
  • Henrot-Versillé, S
  • Hernández-Monteagudo, C
  • Herranz, D
  • Hildebrandt, SR
  • Hivon, E
  • Ho, S
  • Hobson, M
  • Holmes, WA
  • Hornstrup, A
  • Hovest, W
  • Huffenberger, KM
  • Jaffe, AH
  • Jaffe, TR
  • Jones, WC
  • Juvela, M
  • et al.
Abstract

© 2014 ESO. On the arcminute angular scales probed by Planck, the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies are gently perturbed by gravitational lensing. Here we present a detailed study of this effect, detecting lensing independently in the 100, 143, and 217 GHz frequency bands with an overall significance of greater than 25σ. We use thetemperature-gradient correlations induced by lensing to reconstruct a (noisy) map of the CMB lensing potential, which provides an integrated measure of the mass distribution back to the CMB last-scattering surface. Our lensing potential map is significantly correlated with other tracers of mass, a fact which we demonstrate using several representative tracers of large-scale structure. We estimate the power spectrum of the lensing potential, finding generally good agreement with expectations from the best-fitting ΛCDM model for the Planck temperature power spectrum, showing that this measurement at z = 1100 correctly predicts the properties of the lower-redshift, later-time structures which source the lensing potential. When combined with the temperature power spectrum, our measurement provides degeneracy-breaking power for parameter constraints; it improves CMB-alone constraints on curvature by a factor of two and also partly breaks the degeneracy between the amplitude of the primordial perturbation power spectrum and the optical depth to reionization, allowing a measurement of the optical depth to reionization which is independent of large-scale polarization data. Discarding scale information, our measurement corresponds to a 4% constraint on the amplitude of the lensing potential power spectrum, or a 2% constraint on the root-mean-squared amplitude of matter fluctuations at z ~ 2.

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