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The gut mycobiome: a novel player in chronic liver diseases.

  • Author(s): Jiang, Lu;
  • Stärkel, Peter;
  • Fan, Jian-Gao;
  • Fouts, Derrick Eugene;
  • Bacher, Petra;
  • Schnabl, Bernd
  • et al.
Abstract

The human gut microbiome (bacteria, fungi, viruses, and archaea) is a complex and diverse ecosystem. It plays an important role in human health, but is involved in several intestinal and extraintestinal diseases. Most research to date has focused on the role of bacteria, while studies focusing on fungi (also referred to as "mycobiome" or "fungome") are still in its infancy. In this review, we focus on the existing literature available about the gut mycobiome with an emphasis on compositional mycobiome changes associated with liver diseases, the impact on pathogenesis of disease, and its potential use as therapeutic targets. We also provide insights into current methodologies of studying mycobiome, and we highlight the interkingdom interactions in the context of disease and how they affect health of the host. Herein, by focusing on the gut mycobiome, this review provides novel insights and directions for liver research.

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