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National rates and trends of tobacco and substance use disorders among atrial fibrillation hospitalizations.



Atrial Fibrillation (AF) has been associated with various behavioral risk factors such as tobacco, alcohol, and/or substances abuse.


The main objective is to describe the national trends and burden of tobacco and substance abuse in AF hospitalizations. Also, this study identifies potential population who are more vulnerable to these substance abuse among AF hospitalizations.


The National Inpatient Sample database from 2007 to 2015 was utilized and the hospitalizations with AF were identified using the international classification of disease, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification code. They were stratified into without abuse, tobacco use disorder (TUD), substance use disorder (SUD), alcohol use disorder (AUD) and drug use disorder (DUD).


Of 3,631,507 AF hospitalizations, 852,110 (23.46%) had TUD, 1,851,170 (5.1%) had SUD, 155,681 (4.29%) had AUD and 42,667 (1.17%) had DUD. The prevalence of TUD, SUD, AUD, and DUD was substantially increased across all age groups, races, and gender during the study period. Female sex was associated with lower odds TUD, SUD, AUD, and DUD. Among AF hospitalizations, the black race was associated with higher odds of SUD, and DUD. The younger age group (18-35 years), male, Medicare/Medicaid as primary insurance, and lower socioeconomic status were associated with increased risk of both TUD and SUDs.


TUD and SUD among AF hospitalizations in the United States mainly affects males, younger individuals, white more than black, and those of lower socioeconomic status which demands for the development of preventive strategies to address multilevel influences.

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