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An underground, wireless, open-source, low-cost system for monitoring oxygen, temperature, and soil moisture


The use of wireless sensor networks to measure soil parameters eliminates the need to remove sensors for field operations, such as tillage, thus allowing long-term measurements without multiple disturbances to soil structure. Wireless sensors also reduce above-ground cables and the risk of undesired equipment damage and potential data loss. However, implementing wireless sensor networks in field studies usually requires advanced and costly engineering knowledge. This study presents a new underground, wireless, open-source, low-cost system for monitoring soil oxygen, temperature, and soil moisture. The process of system design, assembly, programming, deployment, and power management is presented. The system can be left underground for several years without the need to change the battery. Emphasis was given on modularity so that it can be easily duplicated or changed if needed and deployed without previous engineering knowledge. Data from this type of system have a wide range of applications, including precision agriculture and high-resolution modelling.

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