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Trauma patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV): a propensity matched analysis.

  • Author(s): Covarrubias, Jose
  • Grigorian, Areg
  • Kuza, Catherine M
  • Dolich, Matthew
  • Dosch, Austin
  • Kojayan, Greg G
  • Delaplain, Patrick
  • Lekawa, Michael
  • Nahmias, Jeffry
  • et al.
Abstract

Background

Given the growing number of people worldwide living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a larger subset of these patients are now susceptible to sustaining a traumatic injury. However, the impact of HIV on outcomes in trauma with modern antiretroviral treatment remains unclear. We hypothesized mortality and rates of infectious and inflammatory complications would be higher in HIV positive (HIV+) trauma patients.

Methods

The Trauma Quality Improvement Program was queried to identify trauma patients  ≥ 18 years of age with HIV. Due to the imbalance between HIV+ and HIV negative (HIV-) trauma patients, a 1:2 propensity-matched model was utilized. Matched variables included age, injury severity score, mechanism of injury, systolic blood pressure, pulse rate, Glasgow Coma Scale score, and patient comorbidities.

Results

84 HIV+ patients were matched to 168 HIV- patients. Compared to HIV- patients, HIV+ patients had no significant differences in mortality rate (9.5% vs. 4.8%, p = 0.144) or infectious complications, including pneumonia (6.0% vs. 4.2%, p = 0.530), urinary tract infection (1.2% vs. 1.2%, p = 1.000), or severe sepsis (1.2% vs. 0.0%, p = 0.156). However, higher rates of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (9.5% vs. 0.6%, p < 0.001) and acute kidney injury (AKI) (4.8% vs. 0.0%, p = 0.004) were observed.

Conclusion

HIV+ trauma patients are not at higher risk of mortality or infectious complications, likely due to the advent and prevalence of combination antiretroviral therapy. However, HIV positivity appears to increase the risk of AKI and ARDS in trauma patients. Further research is needed to confirm this finding to elucidate the etiology underlying this association.

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