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Targeted Metabolomics Revealed a Sex-Dependent Signature for Metabolic Syndrome in the Mexican Population


Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a group of several metabolic conditions predisposing to chronic diseases. Individuals diagnosed with MetS are physiologically heterogeneous, with significant sex-specific differences. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the potential sex-specific serum modifications of amino acids and acylcarnitines (ACs) and their relationship with MetS in the Mexican population. This study included 602 participants from the Health Workers Cohort Study. Forty serum metabolites were analyzed using a targeted metabolomics approach. Multivariate regression models were used to test associations of clinical and biochemical parameters with metabolomic profiles. Our findings showed a serum amino acid signature (citrulline and glycine) and medium-chain ACs (AC14:1, AC10, and AC18:10H) associated with MetS. Glycine and AC10 were specific metabolites representative of discrimination according to sex-dependent MetS. In addition, we found that glycine and short-chain ACs (AC2, AC3, and AC8:1) are associated with age-dependent MetS. We also reported a significant correlation between body fat and metabolites associated with sex-age-dependent MetS. In conclusion, the metabolic profile varies by MetS status, and these differences are sex-age-dependent in the Mexican population.

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