Skip to main content
eScholarship
Open Access Publications from the University of California

UCSF

UC San Francisco Previously Published Works bannerUCSF

Risk factors for anal HPV infection and anal precancer in HIV-infected men who have sex with men.

  • Author(s): Schwartz, Lauren M
  • Castle, Philip E
  • Follansbee, Stephen
  • Borgonovo, Sylvia
  • Fetterman, Barbara
  • Tokugawa, Diane
  • Lorey, Thomas S
  • Sahasrabuddhe, Vikrant V
  • Luhn, Patricia
  • Gage, Julia C
  • Darragh, Teresa M
  • Wentzensen, Nicolas
  • et al.
Abstract

Background

Carcinogenic human papillomaviruses (HPVs) cause a large proportion of anal cancers. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) are at increased risk of HPV infection and anal cancer compared with HIV-negative men. We evaluated risk factors for HPV infection and anal precancer in a population of HIV-infected MSM.

Methods

Our study included 305 MSM at an HIV/AIDS clinic in the Kaiser Permanente Northern California Health Maintenance Organization. Logistic regression was used to estimate associations of risk factors comparing men without anal HPV infection; men with anal HPV infection, but no precancer; and men with anal precancer.

Results

Low CD4 count (<350 cells/mm(3)) and previous chlamydia infection were associated with an increased risk of carcinogenic HPV infection (odds ratio [OR], 3.65; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.28-10.40 and OR, 4.24; 95% CI, 1.16-15.51, respectively). History of smoking (OR, 2.71 95% CI, 1.43-5.14), duration, recency, and dose of smoking increased the risk of anal precancer among carcinogenic HPV-positive men but had no association with HPV infection.

Conclusions

We found distinct risk factors for anal HPV infection and anal precancer. Risk factors for HPV infection and anal precancer are similar to established risk factors for cervical cancer progression.

Many UC-authored scholarly publications are freely available on this site because of the UC's open access policies. Let us know how this access is important for you.

Main Content
Current View