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Open Access Publications from the University of California

Addressing the sensitivity of signals from solid/liquid ambient pressure XPS (APXPS) measurement.

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Ambient pressure XPS has demonstrated its great potential in probing the solid/liquid interface, which is a central piece in electrocatalytic, corrosion, and energy storage systems. Despite the advantage of ambient pressure XPS being a surface sensitive characterization technique, the ability of differentiating the surface adsorbed species (∼Å scale) and bulk electrolyte (∼10 nm scale) in the spectrum depends on the delicate balance between bulk solution concentration (C), surface coverage (θ), bulk liquid layer thickness (L), and inelastic mean free path (λ) as a function of photon energy. By investigating a model system of gold dissolving in a bromide solution, the connection between theoretical prediction at the atomic resolution and macroscopic observable spectrum is established.

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