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Diagnostic utility of restriction spectrum imaging (RSI) in glioblastoma patients after concurrent radiation-temozolomide treatment: A pilot study.


Discriminating between tumor recurrence and treatment effects in glioblastoma patients undergoing radiation-temozolomide (RT/TMZ) therapy remains a major clinical challenge. Here, we report a pilot study to determine the utility of restriction spectrum imaging (RSI), an advanced diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) technique that affords meso-scale resolution of cell density, in this assessment. A retrospective review of 31 patients with glioblastoma treated between 2011 and 2017 who underwent surgical resection or biopsy over radiographic concern for tumor recurrence following RT/TMZ was performed. All patients underwent RSI prior to surgical resection. Diagnostic utility of RSI for tumor recurrence was determined in comparison to histopathology. Analysis of surgical specimens revealed treatment effects in 6/31 patients (19%) and tumor recurrence in 25/31 patients (81%). There was general concordance between the measured RSI signal and histopathologic diagnosis. RSI was negative in 5/6 patients (83%) in patients with histological evidence of treatment effects. RSI was positive in 21/25 patients (84%) in patients with tumor recurrence. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of RSI for glioblastoma recurrence were 84%, 86%, 95%, and 60%, respectively. Histopathologic review showed agreement between the RSI signal and cellularity of the tumor specimen. These data support the use of RSI in the evaluation of treatment effects versus tumor recurrence in glioblastoma patients after RT-TMZ therapy.

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