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Multi-System Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) Following SARS-CoV-2 Infection: Review of Clinical Presentation, Hypothetical Pathogenesis, and Proposed Management.

  • Author(s): Nakra, Natasha A;
  • Blumberg, Dean A;
  • Herrera-Guerra, Angel;
  • Lakshminrusimha, Satyan
  • et al.
Abstract

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection may result in the multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). The clinical presentation of MIS-C includes fever, severe illness, and the involvement of two or more organ systems, in combination with laboratory evidence of inflammation and laboratory or epidemiologic evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Some features of MIS-C resemble Kawasaki Disease, toxic shock syndrome, and secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis/macrophage activation syndrome. The relationship of MIS-C to SARS-CoV-2 infection suggests that the pathogenesis involves post-infectious immune dysregulation. Patients with MIS-C should ideally be managed in a pediatric intensive care environment since rapid clinical deterioration may occur. Specific immunomodulatory therapy depends on the clinical presentation. The relationship between the immune response to SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in development and MIS-C requires further study.

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