CYTOKINE CANDIDATE GENES PREDICT THE DEVELOPMENT OF SECONDARY LYMPHEDEMA FOLLOWING BREAST CANCER SURGERY
- Author(s): Leung, Geraldine
- Advisor(s): Miaskowski, Christine;
- Aouizerat, Bradley
- et al.
The purpose of this study was to determine if variations in pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine genes were associated with lymphedema (LE) following breast cancer treatment. Breast cancer patients completed a number of self-report questionnaires. LE was evaluated using bioimpedance spectroscopy. Genotyping was done using a custom genotyping array. No differences were found between patients with (n = 155) and without LE (n = 387) for the majority of the demographic and clinical characteristics. Patients with LE had a significantly higher body mass index, more advanced disease and a higher number of lymph nodes removed. Genetic associations were identified for four three genes (i.e., interleukin (IL4) 4 (rs2227284), IL 10 (rs1518111) and nuclear kappa factor beta 2 (NFKB2 (rs1056890)) associated with inflammatory responses. These genetic associations suggest a role for a number of pro- and anti-inflammatory genes in the development of LE following breast cancer treatment.