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Mixing ratios of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the atmosphere of Karachi, Pakistan

  • Author(s): Barletta, B
  • Meinardi, S
  • Simpson, IJ
  • Khwaja, HA
  • Blake, DR
  • Rowland, FS
  • et al.
Abstract

Mixing ratios of carbon monoxide (CO), methane (CH4), non-methane hydrocarbons, halocarbons and alkyl nitrates (a total of 72 species) were determined for 78 whole air samples collected during the winter of 1998-1999 in Karachi, Pakistan. This is the first time that volatile organic compound (VOC) levels in Karachi have been extensively characterized. The overall air quality of the urban environment was determined using air samples collected at six locations throughout Karachi. Methane (6.3ppmv) and ethane (93ppbv) levels in Karachi were found to be much higher than in other cities that have been studied. The very high CH4 levels highlight the importance of natural gas leakage in Karachi. The leakage of liquefied petroleum gas contributes to elevated propane and butane levels in Karachi, although the propane and butane burdens were lower than in other cities (e.g., Mexico City, Santiago). High levels of benzene (0.3-19ppbv) also appear to be of concern in the Karachi urban area. Vehicular emissions were characterized using air samples collected along the busiest thoroughfare of the city (M.A. Jinnah Road). Emissions from vehicular exhaust were found to be the main source of many of the hydrocarbons reported here. Significant levels of isoprene (1.2ppbv) were detected at the roadside, and vehicular exhaust is estimated to account for about 20% of the isoprene observed in Karachi. 1,2-Dichloroethane, a lead scavenger added to leaded fuel, was also emitted by cars. The photochemical production of ozone (O3) was calculated for CO and the various VOCs using the Maximum Incremental Reactivity (MIR) scale. Based on the MIR scale, the leading contributors to O3 production in Karachi are ethene, CO, propene, m-xylene and toluene. © 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

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