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Open Access Publications from the University of California

Retrieval of the complex-valued refractive index of germanium near the M4,5 absorption edge

  • Author(s): Kaplan, CJ
  • Kraus, PM
  • Gullikson, EM
  • Borja, LJ
  • Cushing, SK
  • Zürch, M
  • Chang, HT
  • Neumark, DM
  • Leone, SR
  • et al.

© 2019 Optical Society of America. The complex-valued index of refraction of germanium in the extreme ultraviolet (XUV) is measured by multiangle reflectance of synchrotron radiation. The resulting index of refraction is higher resolution than previously measured values. It reveals new structures attributed to transitions from the 3d-core orbitals to the Σc5,2 and the Xc5,2 conduction bands. Additionally, it is shown that the problem of total external reflection, which renders multi-angle reflectance measurements insensitive to the complex-valued refractive index at grazing incidence, can be overcome by employing measurements at angles of incidence away from the critical angle.

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