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Picornaviruses and RNA Metabolism: Local and Global Effects of Infection.


Due to the limiting coding capacity for members of the Picornaviridae family of positive-strand RNA viruses, their successful replication cycles require complex interactions with host cell functions. These interactions span from the down-modulation of many aspects of cellular metabolism to the hijacking of specific host functions used during viral translation, RNA replication, and other steps of infection by picornaviruses, such as human rhinovirus, coxsackievirus, poliovirus, foot-and-mouth disease virus, enterovirus D-68, and a wide range of other human and nonhuman viruses. Although picornaviruses replicate exclusively in the cytoplasm of infected cells, they have extensive interactions with host cell nuclei and the proteins and RNAs that normally reside in this compartment of the cell. This review will highlight some of the more recent studies that have revealed how picornavirus infections impact the RNA metabolism of the host cell posttranscriptionally and how they usurp and modify host RNA binding proteins as well as microRNAs to potentiate viral replication.

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