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Production of Urothelium from Pluripotent Stem Cells for Regenerative Applications


As bladder reconstruction strategies evolve, a feasible and safe source of transplantable urothelium becomes a major consideration for patients with advanced bladder disease, particularly cancer. Pluripotent stem cells, such as embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), are attractive candidates from which to derive urothelium as they renew and proliferate indefinitely in vitro and fulfill the non-autologous and/or non-urologic criteria, respectively, that is required for many patients. This review presents the latest advancements in differentiating urothelium from pluripotent stem cells in vitro in the context of current bladder tissue engineering strategies.

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