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Usefulness of intra-procedural cone-beam computed tomography in modified balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration of gastric varices.



To evaluate whether intra-procedural cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) performed during modified balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (mBRTO) can accurately determine technical success of complete variceal obliteration.


From June 2012 to December 2014, 15 patients who received CBCT during mBRTO for treatment of portal hypertensive gastric variceal bleeding were retrospectively evaluated. Three-dimensional (3D) CBCT images were performed and evaluated prior to the end of the procedure, and these were further analyzed and compared to the pre-procedure contrast-enhanced computed tomography to determine the technical success of mBRTO including: Complete occlusion/obliteration of: (1) gastrorenal shunt (GRS); (2) gastric varices; and (3) afferent feeding veins. Post-mBRTO contrast-enhanced CT was used to confirm the accuracy and diagnostic value of CBCT within 2-3 d.


Intra-procedural 3D-CBCT images were 100% accurate in determining the technical success of mBRTO in all 15 cases. CBCT demonstrated complete occlusion/obliteration of GRS, gastric varices, collaterals and afferent feeding veins during mBRTO, which was confirmed with post-mBRTO CT. Two patients showed incomplete obliteration of gastric varices and feeding veins on CBCT, which therefore required additional gelfoam injections to complete the procedure. No patient required additional procedures or other interventions during their follow-up period (684 ± 279 d).


CBCT during mBRTO appears to accurately and immediately determine the technical success of mBRTO. This may improve the technical and clinical success/outcome of mBRTO and reduce additional procedure time in the future.

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