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Role of sulfiredoxin as a peroxiredoxin-2 denitrosylase in human iPSC-derived dopaminergic neurons


Recent studies have pointed to protein S-nitrosylation as a critical regulator of cellular redox homeostasis. For example, S-nitrosylation of peroxiredoxin-2 (Prx2), a peroxidase widely expressed in mammalian neurons, inhibits both enzymatic activity and protective function against oxidative stress. Here, using in vitro and in vivo approaches, we identify a role and reaction mechanism of the reductase sulfiredoxin (Srxn1) as an enzyme that denitrosylates (thus removing -SNO) from Prx2 in an ATP-dependent manner. Accordingly, by decreasing S-nitrosylated Prx2 (SNO-Prx2), overexpression of Srxn1 protects dopaminergic neural cells and human-induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived neurons from NO-induced hypersensitivity to oxidative stress. The pathophysiological relevance of this observation is suggested by our finding that SNO-Prx2 is dramatically increased in murine and human Parkinson's disease (PD) brains. Our findings therefore suggest that Srxn1 may represent a therapeutic target for neurodegenerative disorders such as PD that involve nitrosative/oxidative stress.

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