A novel approach to studying topological phases
In the dissertation, I show some novel experimental techniques used to measure several exotic systems. A loop-less Sagnac interferometer is used to measure time reversal symmetry breaking in the 2D unconventional superconductor BiNi and a ferromagnetic 2D electron gas between between STO and PZT. Next, ac electrical and thermal oscillations caused by a dc current across the topological Kondo insulator $SmB_6$ are measured and modeled, with very similar results. Additionally, a novel uniaxial strain technique is used on $SmB_6$ to enhance surface conduction and the band gap. This technique is further used on FQHE systems to induce meta-stable phases and anisotropic stripe phases. Finally, chiral Majorana edge modes are observed in a hybrid QAHI and superconductor system, with a potential application in quantum computing.