Skip to main content
Open Access Publications from the University of California

How do people respond to congestion mitigation policies? A multivariate probit model of the individual consideration of three travel-related strategy bundles


This study explores the relationships between adoption and consideration of three travel-related strategy bundles (travel maintaining/increasing, travel reducing, and major location/lifestyle change), linking them to a variety of explanatory variables. The data for this study are the responses to a fourteen-page survey returned by nearly 1,300 commuting workers living in three distinct San Francisco Bay area neighborhoods in May 1998. We first identified patterns of adoption and consideration among the bundles, using pairwise correlation tests. The test results indicate that those who have adopted coping strategies continue to seek for improvements across the spectrum of generalized cost, but perhaps most often repeating the consideration of a previously-adopted bundle. Furthermore, we developed a multivariate probit model for individuals’ simultaneous consideration of the three bundles. It is found that in addition to the previous adoption of the bundles, qualitative and quantitative Mobility-related variables, Travel Attitudes, Personality, Lifestyle, Travel Liking, and Sociodemographics significantly affect individual consideration of the strategy bundles. Overall, the results of this study give policy makers and planners insight into understanding the dynamic nature of individuals’ responses to travel-related strategies, as well as differences between the responses to congestion that are assumed by policy makers and those that are actually adopted by individuals.

Main Content
For improved accessibility of PDF content, download the file to your device.
Current View