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Inflammation and remodeling pathways and risk of cardiovascular events in patients with ischemic heart failure and reduced ejection fraction.


Patients with heart failure (HF) and coronary artery disease (CAD) have a high risk for cardiovascular (CV) events including HF hospitalization, stroke, myocardial infarction (MI) and sudden cardiac death (SCD). The present study evaluated associations of proteomic biomarkers with CV outcome in patients with CAD and HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), shortly after a worsening HF episode. We performed a case-control study within the COMMANDER HF international, double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial investigating the effects of the factor-Xa inhibitor rivaroxaban. Patients with the following first clinical events: HF hospitalization, SCD and the composite of MI or stroke were matched with corresponding controls for age, sex and study drug. Plasma concentrations of 276 proteins with known associations with CV and cardiometabolic mechanisms were analyzed. Results were corrected for multiple testing using false discovery rate (FDR). In 485 cases and 455 controls, 49 proteins were significantly associated with clinical events of which seven had an adjusted FDR < 0.001 (NT-proBNP, BNP, T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain containing 4 (TIMD4), fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23), growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15), pulmonary surfactant-associated protein D (PSP-D) and Spondin-1 (SPON1)). No significant interactions were identified between the type of clinical event (MI/stroke, SCD or HFH) and specific biomarkers (all interaction FDR > 0.20). When adding the biomarkers significantly associated with the above outcome to a clinical model (including NT-proBNP), the C-index increase was 0.057 (0.033-0.082), p < 0.0001 and the net reclassification index was 54.9 (42.5 to 67.3), p < 0.0001. In patients with HFrEF and CAD following HF hospitalization, we found that NT-proBNP, BNP, TIMD4, FGF-23, GDF-15, PSP-D and SPON1, biomarkers broadly associated with inflammation and remodeling mechanistic pathways, were strong but indiscriminate predictors of a variety of individual CV events.

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